# AT＆T汇编伪指令

Ted posted @ 2008年9月03日 16:58 in asm with tags ASM , 12734 阅读

最近一直在看OS方面的东西，其中要用到许多AT＆T汇编，下面是在网上打到的关于它的伪指令方面的中英文对照版本。英文版本也可以输入如下命令来查看：
info as

7 Assembler Directives
All assembler directives have names that begin with a period (‘.’). The rest
of the name is letters, usually in lower case.
This chapter discusses directives that are available regardless of the target
machine configuration for the gnu assembler. Some machine configurations provi
de additional directives. See Chapter 8 [Machine Dependencies], page 61.

7 汇编器命令

。见第8章[机器相关性],第61页。

7.1 .abort
This directive stops the assembly immediately. It is for compatibility with ot
her assemblers. The original idea was that the assembly language source would
be piped into the assembler. If the sender of the source quit, it could use th
is directive tells as to quit also. One day .abort will not be supported.

7.1 .abort

7.2 .ABORT
When producing COFF output, as accepts this directive as a synonym for ‘.abor
t’.
When producing b.out output, as accepts this directive, but ignores it.

7.2 .ABORT

7.3 .align abs-expr, abs-expr, abs-expr
Pad the location counter (in the current subsection) to a particular storage b
oundary. The first expression (which must be absolute) is the alignment requir
ed, as described below.
The second expression (also absolute) gives the fill value to be stored in the
padding bytes. It (and the comma) may be omitted. If it is omitted, the paddi
ng bytes are normally zero. However, on some systems, if the section is marked
as containing code and the fill value is omitted, the space is filled with no
-op instructions.
The third expression is also absolute, and is also optional. If it is present,
it is the maximum number of bytes that should be skipped by this alignment di
rective. If doing the alignment would require skipping more bytes than the spe
cified maximum, then the alignment is not done at all. You can omit the fill v
alue (the second argument) entirely by simply using two commas after the requi
red alignment; this can be useful if you want the alignment to be filled with
no-op instructions when appropriate.
The way the required alignment is specified varies from system to system. For
the a29k, hppa, m68k, m88k, w65, sparc, and Hitachi SH, and i386 using ELF for
mat, the first expression is the alignment request in bytes. For example ‘.al
ign 8’ advances the location counter until it is a multiple of 8. If the loca
tion counter is already a multiple of 8, no change is needed.
For other systems, including the i386 using a.out format, and the arm and stro
ngarm, it is the number of low-order zero bits the location counter must have
l it a multiple of 8. If the location counter is already a multiple of 8, no c
hange is needed.
This inconsistency is due to the different behaviors of the various native ass
emblers for these systems which GAS must emulate. GAS also provides .balign an
d .p2align directives, described later, which have a consistent behavior acros
s all architectures (but are specific to GAS).

7.3 .align abs-expr, abs-expr, abs-expr

.p2align命令，在以后详细讲述，这两条命令在所有的机型上使用相同的动作 (但需要向
GAS明确说明机型)。

7.4 .ascii "string". . .
.ascii expects zero or more string literals (see Section 3.6.1.1 [Strings], pa
ge 19) separated by commas. It assembles each string (with no automatic traili
ng zero byte) into consecutive addresses.

7.4 .ascii "string"...
.ascii可不带参数或者带多个由逗点分开的字符串(见3.6.1.1节[Strings],第19页)。它把

7.5 .asciz "string". . .
.asciz is just like .ascii, but each string is followed by a zero byte. The “
z” in ‘.asciz’ stands for “zero”.

7.5 .asciz "string"...
.asciz类似与.ascii,但在每个字符串末自动追加一个零字节。‘.asciz’中的‘z’代表
“zero”。

7.6 .balign[wl] abs-expr, abs-expr, abs-expr
Pad the location counter (in the current subsection) to a particular storage b
oundary. The first expression (which must be absolute) is the alignment reques
t in bytes. For example ‘.balign 8’ advances the location counter until it i
s a multiple of 8. If the location counter is already a multiple of 8, no chan
ge is needed.
The second expression (also absolute) gives the fill value to be stored in the
padding bytes. It (and the comma) may be omitted. If it is omitted, the paddi
ng bytes are normally zero. However, on some systems, if the section is marked
as containing code and the fill value is omitted, the space is filled with no
-op instructions.
The third expression is also absolute, and is also optional. If it is present,
it is the maximum number of bytes that should be skipped by this alignment di
rective. If doing the alignment would require skipping more bytes than the spe
cified maximum, then the alignment is not done at all. You can omit the fill v
alue (the second argument) entirely by simply using two commas after the requi
red alignment; this can be useful if you want the alignment to be filled with
no-op instructions when appropriate.
The .balignw and .balignl directives are variants of the .balign directive. Th
e .balignw directive treats the fill pattern as a two byte word value. The .ba
lignl directives treats the fill pattern as a four byte longword value. For ex
ample, .balignw 4,0x368d will align to a multiple of 4. If it skips two bytes,
they will be filled in with the value 0x368d (the exact placement of the byte
s depends upon the endianness of the processor). If it skips 1 or 3 bytes, the
fill value is undefined.

7.6
.balign[wl] abs-expr, abs-expr, abs-expr

.balignw和.balignl是.balign命令的变化形式。.balignw使用2个字节来填充空白区。.b
alignl使用4字节来填充。例如,.balignw 4,0x368d将地址对齐到4的倍数，如果它跳过2个

7.7 .byte expressions
.byte expects zero or more expressions, separated by commas. Each expression i
s assembled into the next byte.

7.7.byte expressions
.byte可不带参数或者带多个表达式参数，表达式之间由逗点分隔。每个表达式参数都被汇

7.8 .comm symbol , length
.comm declares a common symbol named symbol. When linking, a common symbol in
one object file may be merged with a defined or common symbol of the same name
in another object file. If ld does not see a definition for the symbol–just
one or more common symbols–then it will allocate length bytes of uninitialize
d memory. length must be an absolute expression. If ld sees multiple common sy
mbols with the same name, and they do not all have the same size, it will allo
cate space using the largest size.
When using ELF, the .comm directive takes an optional third argument. This is
the desired alignment of the symbol, specified as a byte boundary (for example
, an alignment of 16 means that the least significant 4 bits of the address sh
ould be zero). The alignment must be an absolute expression, and it must be a
power of two. If ld allocates uninitialized memory for the common symbol, it w
ill use the alignment when placing the symbol. If no alignment is specified, a
s will set the alignment to the largest power of two less than or equal to the
size of the symbol, up to a maximum of 16.
The syntax for .comm differs slightly on the HPPA. The syntax is ‘symbol .com
m, length’;symbol is optional.

7.8 .comm symbol , length
.comm声明一个符号名为symbol的通用符号(common symbol)。当连接时，目标文件中的通

.comm的语法在HPPA上稍微有些不同。语法是‘symbol .comm, length’;其中参数symbol

7.9 .data subsection
.data tells as to assemble the following statements onto the end of the data s
ubsection numbered subsection (which is an absolute expression). If subsection
is omitted, it defaults to zero.

7.9 .data subsection
.data通知as汇编后续语句，将它们追加在编号为subsection(subsection必须是纯粹的表

7.10 .def name
Begin defining debugging information for a symbol name; the definition extends
until the .endef directive is encountered. This directive is only observed wh
en as is configured for COFF format output; when producing b.out, ‘.def’ is
recognized, but ignored.

7.10 .def name

OFF格式输出时才使用;当输出为b.out格式时，可以使用‘.def’命令，但被忽略。

7.11 .desc symbol, abs-expression
This directive sets the descriptor of the symbol (see Section 5.5 [Symbol Attr
ibutes],page 30) to the low 16 bits of an absolute expression.
The ‘.desc’ directive is not available when as is configured for COFF output
; it is only for a.out or b.out object format. For the sake of compatibility,
as accepts it, but produces no output, when configured for COFF.

7.11 .desc symbol, abs-expression

)。当as被配置成COFF输出时，‘.desc’命令无效;它只适用于a.out或b.out目标格式。为

7.12 .dim
This directive is generated by compilers to include auxiliary debugging inform
ation in the symbol table. It is only permitted inside .def/.endef pairs.
‘.dim’ is only meaningful when generating COFF format output; when as is gen
erating b.out, it accepts this directive but ignores it.

7.12 .dim

'.dim'仅仅在生成COFF格式输出时是有意义的;当生成b.out时,as接受这条命令,但忽略它

7.13 .double flonums
.double expects zero or more flonums, separated by commas. It assembles floati
ng point numbers. The exact kind of floating point numbers emitted depends on
how as is configured. See Chapter 8 [Machine Dependencies], page 61.

7.13 .double flonums
.double后跟着零个或由逗点分开多个的浮点数。本指令汇编出浮点数字。生成的浮点数的

7.14 .eject
Force a page break at this point, when generating assembly listings.

7.14 .eject

7.15 .else
.else is part of the as support for conditional assembly; see Section 7.35 [.i
f], page 43. It marks the beginning of a section of code to be assembled if th
e condition for the preceding
.if was false.

7.15 .else
.else 是支持as进行的条件汇编指令之一;见7.35[.if],第43页。如果前面.if命令的条件

7.16 .elseif
.elseif is part of the as support for conditional assembly; see Section 7.35 [
.if],page 43. It is shorthand for beginning a new .if block that would otherwi
se fill the entire .else section.

7.16 .elseif
.elseif 是支持as进行的条件汇编指令之一。见7.35节 [.if],第43页。它可以在.esle段

7.17 .end
.end marks the end of the assembly file. as does not process anything in the f
ile past the .end directive.

7.17 .end
.end标记着汇编文件的结束。as不处理.end命令后的任何语句。

7.18 .endef
This directive flags the end of a symbol definition begun with .def.
‘.endef’ is only meaningful when generating COFF format output; if as is con
figured to generate b.out, it accepts this directive but ignores it.

7.18 .endef

‘.endef’命令仅仅在生成COFF格式的输出有意义;如果as被配置为生成b.out输出,虽然a
s接受这条命令，但忽略它。

7.19 .endfunc
.endfunc marks the end of a function specified with .func.

7.19 .endfunc
.endfunc标志着一个由.func命令定义的函数的结束。

7.20 .endif
.endif is part of the as support for conditional assembly; it marks the end of
a block of code that is only assembled conditionally. See Section 7.35 [.if],
page 43.

7.20 .endif
.endif是支持as进行的条件汇编的指令之一.它标志着条件汇编代码块的结束。见7.35节[
.if],第43页。

7.21 .equ symbol, expression
This directive sets the value of symbol to expression. It is synonymous with ‘
.set’; see Section 7.68 [.set], page 53.
The syntax for equ on the HPPA is ‘symbol .equ expression’.

7.21 .equ symbol, expression

7.22 .equiv symbol, expression
The .equiv directive is like .equ and .set, except that the assembler will sig
nal an error if symbol is already defined.
Except for the contents of the error message, this is roughly equivalent to

.ifdef SYM
.err
.endif
.equ SYM,VAL

7.22 .equiv symbol, expression
.equiv 类似与.equ & .set命令, 不同之处在于，如果符号已经定义过，as会发出错误信

.ifdef SYM
.err
.endif
.equ SYM,VAL

7.23 .err
If as assembles a .err directive, it will print an error message and, unless t
he -Z option was used, it will not generate an object file. This can be used t
o signal error an conditionally compiled code.

7.23 .err

7.24 .exitm
Exit early from the current macro definition. See Section 7.50 [Macro], page 4
7.

7.24 .exitm

7.25 .extern
.extern is accepted in the source program—for compatibility with other assemb
lers—but it is ignored. as treats all undefined symbols as external.

7.25 .extern
.extern可以在源程序中使用--以便兼容其他的汇编器—但会被忽略。as将所有未定义的符

7.26 .fail expression
Generates an error or a warning. If the value of the expression is 500 or more
, as will print a warning message. If the value is less than 500, as will prin
t an error message. The message will include the value of expression. This can
occasionally be useful inside complex nested macros or conditional assembly.

7.26 .fail expression

7.27 .file string
.file tells as that we are about to start a new logical file. string is the ne
w file name.
In general, the filename is recognized whether or not it is surrounded by quot
es ‘"’; but if you wish to specify an empty file name, you must give the quo
tes–"". This statement may go away in future: it is only recognized to be com
patible with old as programs. In some configurations of as, .file has already
been removed to avoid conflicts with other assemblers. See Chapter 8 [Machine
Dependencies], page 61.

7.27 .file string
.file 通告as我们准备开启一个新的逻辑文件。 string 是新文件名。总的来说，文件名

7.28 .fill repeat , size , value
repeat, size and value are absolute expressions. This emits repeat copies of s
ize bytes. Repeat may be zero or more. Size may be zero or more, but if it is
more than 8, then it is deemed to have the value 8, compatible with other peop
le’s assemblers. The contents of each repeat bytes are taken from an 8-byte n
umber. The highest order 4 bytes are zero. The lowest order 4 bytes are value
rendered in the byte-order of an integer on the computer as is assembling for.
Each size bytes in a repetition is taken from the lowest order size bytes of
this number. Again, this bizarre behavior is compatible with other people’s a
ssemblers.
size and value are optional. If the second comma and value are absent, value i
s assumed zero. If the first comma and following tokens are absent, size is as
sumed to be 1.

7.28 .fill repeat , size , value
repeat, size 和value都必须是纯粹的表达式。本命令生成size个字节的repeat个副本。
Repeat可以是0或更大的值。Size 可以是0或更大的值, 但即使size大于8,也被视作8，以

4个字节是value，它以as正在汇编的目标计算机的整数字节顺序排列。每个副本中的size

size参数和value参数是可选的。如果不存在第2个逗号和value参数，则假定value为零。

7.29 .float flonums
This directive assembles zero or more flonums, separated by commas. It has the
same effect as .single. The exact kind of floating point numbers emitted depe
nds on how as is configured. See Chapter 8 [Machine Dependencies], page 61.

7.29 .float flonums

7.30 .func name[,label]
.func emits debugging information to denote function name, and is ignored unle
ss the file is assembled with debugging enabled. Only ‘--gstabs’ is currentl
y supported. Label is the entry point of the function and if omitted name prep
ended with the ‘leading char’ is used. ‘leading char’ is usually _ or noth
ing, depending on the target. All functions are currently defined to have void
return type. The function must be terminated with .endfunc.

7.30 .func name[,label]
.func发出一个调试信息用以指示函数name，这个信息将被忽略，除非文件使用debugging
enabled方式的汇编。目前只支持‘--gstabs’。label是函数的入口点，如果name被省略

7.31 .global symbol, .globl symbol
.global makes the symbol visible to ld. If you define symbol in your partial p
rogram, its value is made available to other partial programs that are linked
with it. Otherwise, symbol takes its attributes from a symbol of the same name
from another file linked into the same program.
Both spellings (‘.globl’ and ‘.global’) are accepted, for compatibility wi
th other assemblers.
On the HPPA, .global is not always enough to make it accessible to other parti
al programs. You may need the HPPA-only .EXPORT directive as well. See Section
8.8.5 [HPPA Assembler Directives], page 84.

7.31 .global symbol, .globl symbol
.global 使符号symbol对连接器ld可见。如果您在局部过程中定义符号symbol，其它和此

.EXPORT命令。见8.8.5[HPPA Assembler Directives],84页。

7.32 .hidden names
This one of the ELF visibility directives. The other two are .internal (see Se
ction 7.39 [.internal], page 44) and .protected (see Section 7.58 [.protected]
, page 50).
This directive overrides the named symbols default visibility (which is set by
their binding: local, global or weak). The directive sets the visibility to h
idden which means that the symbols are not visible to other components. Such s
ymbols are always considered to be protected as well.

7.32 .hidden names

rotected (见7.58 [.protected], 50页)。本命令取消指定符号的缺省可见度(可见度由其

7.33 .hword expressions
This expects zero or more expressions, and emits a 16 bit number for each.
This directive is a synonym for ‘.short’; depending on the target architectu
re, it may also be a synonym for ‘.word’.

7.33 .hword expressions

7.34 .ident
This directive is used by some assemblers to place tags in object files. as si
mply accepts the directive for source-file compatibility with such assemblers,
but does not actually emit anything for it.

7.34 .ident

，as简单地接受本命令，但实际上不产生东西。

7.35 .if absolute expression
.if marks the beginning of a section of code which is only considered part of
the source program being assembled if the argument (which must be an absolute
expression) is nonzero. The end of the conditional section of code must be mar
ked by .endif (see Section 7.20 [.endif], page 40); optionally, you may includ
e code for the alternative condition, flagged by .else (see Section 7.15 [.els
e], page 40). If you have several conditions to check, .elseif may be used to
avoid nesting blocks if/else within each subsequent .else block.
The following variants of .if are also supported:
.ifdef symbol
Assembles the following section of code if the specified symbol has been defin
ed.
.ifc string1,string2
Assembles the following section of code if the two strings are the same. The s
trings may be optionally quoted with single quotes. If they are not quoted, th
e first string stops at the first comma, and the second string stops at the en
d of the line. Strings which contain whitespace should be quoted. The string c
omparison is case sensitive.
.ifeq absolute expression
Assembles the following section of code if the argument is zero.
.ifeqs string1,string2
Another form of .ifc. The strings must be quoted using double quotes.
.ifge absolute expression
Assembles the following section of code if the argument is greater than or equ
al to zero.
.ifgt absolute expression
Assembles the following section of code if the argument is greater than zero.

.ifle absolute expression
Assembles the following section of code if the argument is less than or equal
to zero.
.iflt absolute expression
Assembles the following section of code if the argument is less than zero.
.ifnc string1,string2.
Like .ifc, but the sense of the test is reversed: this assembles the following
section of code if the two strings are not the same.
.ifndef symbol
.ifnotdef symbol
Assembles the following section of code if the specified symbol has not been d
efined. Both spelling variants are equivalent.
.ifne absolute expression
Assembles the following section of code if the argument is not equal to zero (
in other words, this is equivalent to .if).
.ifnes string1,string2
Like .ifeqs, but the sense of the test is reversed: this assembles the followi
ng section of code if the two strings are not the same.

7.35 .if absolute expression
.if 标志着一段代码的开始，这段代码只有在参数absolute experession(必须是一个独立

ndif], 40页);另外，可以使用.esle来标记一个代码块(见7.15 [.else],40页)，这个代码

seif命令，以避免在.else代码块中进行if/else语句块的嵌套。

.ifdef symbol

.ifc string1,string2

.ifeq absolute expression

.ifeqs string1,string2

.ifge absolute expression

.ifgt absolute expression

.ifle absolute expression

.iflt absolute expression

.ifnc string1,string2.

.ifndef symbol
.ifnotdef symbol

.ifne absolute expression

.ifnes string1,string2

7.36 .incbin "file"[,skip[,count]]
The incbin directive includes file verbatim at the current location. You can c
ontrol the search paths used with the ‘-I’ command-line option (see Chapter
2 [Command-Line Options], page 11). Quotation marks are required around file.

The skip argument skips a number of bytes from the start of the file. The coun
t argument indicates the maximum number of bytes to read. Note that the data i
s not aligned in any way, so it is the user’s responsibility to make sure tha
t proper alignment is provided both before and after the incbin directive.

7.36 .incbin "file"[,skip[,count]]

”来控制搜索路径。(见第2章[Command-Line Options], 11页)。文件名必须使用引号。

7.37 .include "file"
This directive provides a way to include supporting files at specified points
in your source program. The code from file is assembled as if it followed the
point of the .include; when the end of the included file is reached, assembly
of the original file continues. You can control the search paths used with the
‘-I’ command-line option (see Chapter 2 [Command-Line Options], page 11). Q
uotation marks are required around file.

7.37 .include "file"

”来控制搜索路径(见第2章[Command-Line Options], 11页)。文件名必须使用引号来标注

7.38 .int expressions
Expect zero or more expressions, of any section, separated by commas. For each
expression, emit a number that, at run time, is the value of that expression.
The byte order and bit size of the number depends on what kind of target the
assembly is for.

7.38 .int expressions

7.39 .internal names
This one of the ELF visibility directives. The other two are .hidden (see Sect
ion 7.32 [.hidden], page 42) and .protected (see Section 7.58 [.protected], pa
ge 50).
This directive overrides the named symbols default visibility (which is set by
their binding: local, global or weak). The directive sets the visibility to i
nternal which means that the symbols are considered to be hidden (ie not visib
le to other components), and that some extra, processor specific processing mu
st also be performed upon the symbols as well.

7.39 .internal names

rotected (见7.58 [.protected],50页)。

），另外，符号还必须经过处理器的特别的处理。

# 回复：linux下汇编的Directive Operands 2004-09-08 3:24 PM n9871009

5.3节符号名发现这个问题，当时另选了两个词替代了向前和向后。看起来现在必须说明一

===========================================================
7.40 .irp symbol, values . . .
Evaluate a sequence of statements assigning different values to symbol. The se
quence of statements starts at the .irp directive, and is terminated by an .en
dr directive. For each value, symbol is set to value, and the sequence of stat
ements is assembled. If no value is listed, the sequence of statements is asse
mbled once, with symbol set to the null string. To refer to symbol within the
sequence of statements, use \symbol.
For example, assembling
.irp param,1,2,3
move d\param,sp@-
.endr
is equivalent to assembling
move d1,sp@-
move d2,sp@-
move d3,sp@-

7.40 .irp symbol,values . . .

.irp param,1,2,3
move d\param,sp@-
.endr

move d1,sp@-
move d2,sp@-
move d3,sp@-

7.41 .irpc symbol,values . . .
Evaluate a sequence of statements assigning different values to symbol. The se
quence of statements starts at the .irpc directive, and is terminated by an .e
ndr directive. For each character in value, symbol is set to the character, an
d the sequence of statements is assembled. If no value is listed, the sequence
of statements is assembled once, with symbol set to the null string. To refer
to symbol within the sequence of statements, use \symbol.
For example, assembling
.irpc param,123
move d\param,sp@-
.endr
is equivalent to assembling
move d1,sp@-
move d2,sp@-
move d3,sp@-

7.41 .irpc symbol,values. . .

.irpc param,123
move d\param,sp@-
.endr

move d1,sp@-
move d2,sp@-
move d3,sp@-

7.42 .lcomm symbol , length
Reserve length (an absolute expression) bytes for a local common denoted by sy
mbol. The section and value of symbol are those of the new local common. The a
ddresses are allocated in the bss section, so that at run-time the bytes start
off zeroed. Symbol is not declared global (see Section 7.31 [.global], page 4
2), so is normally not visible to ld.
Some targets permit a third argument to be used with .lcomm. This argument spe
cifies the desired alignment of the symbol in the bss section.
The syntax for .lcomm differs slightly on the HPPA. The syntax is ‘symbol .lc
omm, length’; symbol is optional.

7.42 .lcomm symbol , length

.lcomm的语法在HPPA上稍有不同。表示为‘symbol .lcomm, length’; symbol 是可选的

7.43 .lflags
as accepts this directive, for compatibility with other assemblers, but ignore
s it.

7.43 .lflags
as接受本命令，以兼容其他的汇编器，但忽略之。

7.44 .line line-number
Change the logical line number. line-number must be an absolute expression. Th
e next line has that logical line number. Therefore any other statements on th
e current line (after a statement separator character) are reported as on logi
cal line number line-number - 1. One day as will no longer support this direct
ive: it is recognized only for compatibility with existing assembler programs.

Warning: In the AMD29K configuration of as, this command is not available; use
the synonym .ln in that context.
Even though this is a directive associated with the a.out or b.out object-code
formats, as still recognizes it when producing COFF output, and treats ‘.lin
e’ as though it were the COFF ‘.ln’ if it is found outside a .def/.endef pa
ir.
Inside a .def, ‘.line’ is, instead, one of the directives used by compilers
to generate auxiliary symbol information for debugging.

7.44 .line line-number

-number - 1。以后 as将不在支持这条命令：只是为了兼容现存的汇编器而接受本命令。

Warning: 在为AMD29K目标机器配置的as中,不能使用本指令。在这种场合可以使用.ln命令

Mark the current section so that the linker only includes a single copy of it.
This may be used to include the same section in several different object file
s, but ensure that the linker will only include it once in the final output fi
le. The .linkonce pseudo-op must be used for each instance of the section. Dup
licate sections are detected based on the section name, so it should be unique
.
This directive is only supported by a few object file formats; as of this writ
ing, the only object file format that supports it is the Portable Executable f
ormat used on Windows NT.
The type argument is optional. If specified, it must be one of the following s
trings. For example:
Not all types may be supported on all object file formats.
one_only Warn if there are duplicate sections, but still keep only one copy.

same_size Warn if any of the duplicates have different sizes.
same_contents
Warn if any of the duplicates do not have exactly the same contents.

ce伪操作必须在每个段的实例都中使用。对重复段的探测基于段名来进行，因此这个段将

le Executable）格式的目标文件支持本命令，

one_only 如果存在重复的段则发出警告，但只保存一个拷贝。
same_size 如果重复的段有不同的大小则发出警告。
same_contents 如果重复段的内容不是精确的相符则发出警告。

7.46 .ln line-number
‘.ln’ is a synonym for ‘.line’.

7.46 .ln line-number
‘.ln’命令等同与‘.line’.

7.47 .mri val
If val is non-zero, this tells as to enter MRI mode. If val is zero, this tell
s as to exit MRI mode. This change affects code assembled until the next .mri
directive, or until the end of the file. See Section 2.8 [MRI mode], page 13.

7.47 .mri val

RI模式。这个变化会影响汇编的结果，直到下个.mri命令，或者直到文件尾。见2.8 [MRI
mode], 13页。

7.48 .list
Control (in conjunction with the .nolist directive) whether or not assembly li
stings are generated. These two directives maintain an internal counter (which
is zero initially). .list increments the counter, and .nolist decrements it.
Assembly listings are generated whenever the counter is greater than zero.
By default, listings are disabled. When you enable them (with the ‘-a’ comma
nd line option; see Chapter 2 [Command-Line Options], page 11), the initial va
lue of the listing counter is one.

7.48 .list

[Command-Line Options], 11页)， 内部计数器的初始值为1。

7.49 .long expressions
.long is the same as ‘.int’, see Section 7.38 [.int], page 44.

7.49 .long expressions
.long是.int的等价命令，见7.38 [.int], 44页.

7.50 .macro
The commands .macro and .endm allow you to define macros that generate assembl
y output. For example, this definition specifies a macro sum that puts a seque
nce of numbers into memory:
.macro sum from=0, to=5
.long \from
.if \to-\from
sum "(\from+1)",\to
.endif
.endm
With that definition, ‘SUM 0,5’ is equivalent to this assembly input:
.long 0
.long 1
.long 2
.long 3
.long 4
.long 5
.macro macname
.macro macname macargs ...
Begin the definition of a macro called macname. If your macro definition requi
res arguments, specify their names after the macro name, separated by commas o
r spaces. You can supply a default value for any macro argument by following t
he name with ‘=deflt’. For example, these are all valid .macro statements:

.macro comm
Begin the definition of a macro called comm, which takes no arguments.
.macro plus1 p, p1
.macro plus1 p p1
Either statement begins the definition of a macro called plus1,which takes two
arguments; within the macro definition, write ‘\p’ or ‘\p1’ to evaluate t
he arguments.
.macro reserve_str p1=0 p2
Begin the definition of a macro called reserve_str, with two arguments. The fi
rst argument has a default value, but not the second. After the definition is
complete, you can call the macro either as ‘reserve_str a, b’ (with ‘\p1’
evaluating to a and ‘\p2’ evaluating to b), or as ‘reserve_str ,b’ (with ‘
\p1’ evaluating as the default, in this case ‘0’, and ‘\p2’ evaluating to
b).
When you call a macro, you can specify the argument values either by position,
or by keyword. For example, ‘sum 9,17’ is equivalent to ‘sum to=17, from=9
’.
.endm Mark the end of a macro definition.
.exitm Exit early from the current macro definition.
\@ as maintains a counter of how many macros it has executed in this pseudov-a
riable; you can copy that number to your output with ‘\@’, but only within a
macro definition.

7.50 .macro

sum，这个宏把一个数字序列放入内存。

.macro sum from=0, to=5
.long \from
.if \to-\from
sum "(\from+1)",\to
.endif
.endm

.long 0
.long 1
.long 2
.long 3
.long 4
.long 5

.macro macname
.macro macname macargs ...

.macro comm

.macro plus1 p, p1
.macro plus1 p p1

\p'或'\p1'来引用参数的值。
.macro reserve_str p1=0 p2

\p2’引用b值)或通过‘reserve_str ,b’(‘\p1’使用缺省值，在此为‘0’，‘\p2’引

‘sum 9,17’和‘sum to=17, from=9’是等价的。
.endm 标志宏定义体的结束。
.exitm 提前从当前宏定义体中退出。
\@ 这个伪变量其实是as维护的一个计数器，用来统计执行了多少个宏。您可以通过使用\
@把这个数字复制到您的输出中，但仅限于在宏定义体中使用。

7.51 .nolist
Control (in conjunction with the .list directive) whether or not assembly list
ings are generated. These two directives maintain an internal counter (which i
s zero initially). .list increments the counter, and .nolist decrements it. As
sembly listings are generated whenever the counter is greater than zero.

7.51 .nolist

7.52 .octa bignums
This directive expects zero or more bignums, separated by commas. For each big
num, it emits a 16-byte integer.
The term “octa” comes from contexts in which a “word” is two bytes; hence
octa-word for 16 bytes.

7.52 .octa bignums

16个字节的整数。

7.53 .org new-lc , fill
Advance the location counter of the current section to new-lc. new-lc is eithe
r an absolute expression or an expression with the same section as the current
subsection. That is, you can’t use .org to cross sections: if new-lc has the
wrong section, the .org directive is ignored. To be compatible with former as
semblers, if the section of new-lc is absolute, as issues a warning, then pret
ends the section of new-lc is the same as the current subsection.
.org may only increase the location counter, or leave it unchanged; you cannot
use .org to move the location counter backwards.
Because as tries to assemble programs in one pass, new-lc may not be undefined
. If you really detest this restriction we eagerly await a chance to share you
r improved assembler.
Beware that the origin is relative to the start of the section, not to the sta
rt of the subsection. This is compatible with other people’s assemblers.
When the location counter (of the current subsection) is advanced, the interve
ning bytes are filled with fill which should be an absolute expression. If the
comma and fill are omitted, fill defaults to zero.

7.53 .org new-lc , fill

.org 仅仅可以增大位置计数器，或者保持位置计数器不变；您不能使用.org命令把位置计

7.54 .p2align[wl] abs-expr, abs-expr, abs-expr
Pad the location counter (in the current subsection) to a particular storage b
oundary. The first expression (which must be absolute) is the number of low-or
der zero bits the location counter must have after advancement. For example ‘
.p2align 3’ advances the location counter until it a multiple of 8. If the lo
cation counter is already a multiple of 8, no change is needed.
The second expression (also absolute) gives the fill value to be stored in the
padding bytes. It (and the comma) may be omitted. If it is omitted, the paddi
ng bytes are normally zero. However, on some systems, if the section is marked
as containing code and the fill value is omitted, the space is filled with no
-op instructions.
The third expression is also absolute, and is also optional. If it is present,
it is the maximum number of bytes that should be skipped by this alignment di
rective. If doing the alignment would require skipping more bytes than the spe
cified maximum, then the alignment is not done at all. You can omit the fill v
alue (the second argument) entirely by simply using two commas after the requi
red alignment; this can be useful if you want the alignment to be filled with
no-op instructions when appropriate.
The .p2alignw and .p2alignl directives are variants of the .p2align directive.
The .p2alignw directive treats the fill pattern as a two byte word value. The
.p2alignl directives treats the fill pattern as a four byte longword value. F
or example, .p2alignw 2,0x368d will align to a multiple of 4. If it skips two
bytes, they will be filled in with the value 0x368d (the exact placement of th
e bytes depends upon the endianness of the processor). If it skips 1 or 3 byte
s, the fill value is undefined.

7.54 .p2align[wl] abs-expr, abs-expr, abs-expr

.p2alignw和.p2alignl是.p2align命令的变化形式。.p2alignw 使用2个字节来填充填充区
。.p2alignl使用4字节来填充。例如,. .p2alignw 2,0x368d将地址对齐到4的倍数，如果

7.55 .previous
This is one of the ELF section stack manipulation directives. The others are .
section (see Section 7.66 [Section], page 52), .subsection (see Section 7.79 [
SubSection], page 56), .pushsection (see Section 7.61 [PushSection], page 50),
and .popsection (see Section 7.56 [PopSection], page 50).
This directive swaps the current section (and subsection) with most recently r
eferenced section (and subsection) prior to this one. Multiple .previous direc
tives in a row will flip between two sections (and their subsections).
In terms of the section stack, this directive swaps the current section with t
he top section on the section stack.

7.55 .previous

, 52页), .subsection (见 7.79 [SubSection], 56页),.pushsection (见 7.61 [PushS
ection], 50页), 和 .popsection (见 7.56 [PopSection], 50页)。

7.56 .popsection
This is one of the ELF section stack manipulation directives. The others are .
section (see Section 7.66 [Section], page 52), .subsection (see Section 7.79 [
SubSection], page 56), .pushsection (see Section 7.61 [PushSection], page 50),
and .previous (see Section 7.55 [Previous], page 49).
This directive replaces the current section (and subsection) with the top sect
ion (and subsection) on the section stack. This section is popped off the stac
k.

7.56 .popsection

52页), .subsection (见 7.79 [SubSection], 56页),.pushsection (见 7.61 [PushSe
ction], 50页), 和 .previous (见 7.55 [Previous], 49页).

7.57 .print string
as will print string on the standard output during assembly. You must put stri
ng in double quotes.

7.57 .print string
as会在标准输出上打印string字符串。String必须使用双引号。

7.58 .protected names
This one of the ELF visibility directives. The other two are .hidden (see Sect
ion 7.32 [Hidden], page 42) and .internal (see Section 7.39 [Internal], page 4
4).
This directive overrides the named symbols default visibility (which is set by
their binding: local, global or weak). The directive sets the visibility to p
rotected which means that any references to the symbols from within the compon
ents that defines them must be resolved to the definition in that component, e
ven if a definition in another component would normally preempt this.

7.58 .protected names

nternal (参见 7.39 [Internal], 44页)。

eak）本命令将可见度设置为protected,这个可见度意味着：在定义此符号的部件内对此符

7.59 .psize lines, columns
Use this directive to declare the number of lines—and, optionally, the number
of columns—to use for each page, when generating listings.
If you do not use .psize, listings use a default line-count of 60. You may omi
t the comma and columns specification; the default width is 200 columns.
as generates formfeeds whenever the specified number of lines is exceeded (or
whenever you explicitly request one, using .eject).
If you specify lines as 0, no formfeeds are generated save those explicitly sp
ecified with .eject.

7.59 .psize lines , columns

200列。

.eject命令）

7.60 .purgem name
Undefine the macro name, so that later uses of the string will not be expanded
. See Section 7.50 [Macro], page 47.

7.60 .purgem name

7.61 .pushsection name , subsection
This is one of the ELF section stack manipulation directives. The others are .
section (see Section 7.66 [Section], page 52), .subsection (see Section 7.79 [
SubSection], page 56), .popsection (see Section 7.56 [PopSection], page 50), a
nd .previous (see Section 7.55 [Previous], page 49).
This directive is a synonym for .section. It pushes the current section (and s
ubsection) onto the top of the section stack, and then replaces the current se
ction and subsection with name and subsection.

7.61 .pushsection name , subsection

) , .subsection (参见7.79 [SubSection], 56页),.popsection (参见 7.56 [PopSecti
on], 50页), 和 .previous (参见 7.55 [Previous], 49页)。

.quad expects zero or more bignums, separated by commas. For each bignum, it e
mits an 8-byte integer. If the bignum won’t fit in 8 bytes, it prints a warni
ng message; and just takes the lowest order 8 bytes of the bignum.
The term “quad” comes from contexts in which a “word” is two bytes; hence

8字节。

7.63 .rept count
Repeat the sequence of lines between the .rept directive and the next .endr di
rective count times.
For example, assembling
.rept 3
.long 0
.endr
is equivalent to assembling
.long 0
.long 0
.long 0

7.63 .rept count

.rept 3
.long 0
.endr

.long 0
.long 0
.long 0

Use subheading as the title (third line, immediately after the title line) whe
n generating assembly listings.
This directive affects subsequent pages, as well as the current page if it app
ears within ten lines of the top of a page.

7.65 .scl class
Set the storage-class value for a symbol. This directive may only be used insi
de a .def/.endef pair. Storage class may flag whether a symbol is static or ex
ternal, or it may record further symbolic debugging information.
The ‘.scl’ directive is primarily associated with COFF output; when configur
ed to generate b.out output format, as accepts this directive but ignores it.

7.65 .scl class

‘.scl’命令主要与在COFF输出有关，当生成b.out输出格式时，as接受本命令，但忽略本

7.66 .section name (COFF version)
Use the .section directive to assemble the following code into a section named
name.
This directive is only supported for targets that actually support arbitrarily
named sections; on a.out targets, for example, it is not accepted, even with
a standard a.out section name.
For COFF targets, the .section directive is used in one of the following ways:

.section name [, "flags"]
.section name [, subsegment]
If the optional argument is quoted, it is taken as flags to use for the sectio
n. Each flag is a single character. The following flags are recognized:
b bss section (uninitialized data)
w writable section
d data section
x executable section
s shared section (meaningful for PE targets)
If no flags are specified, the default flags depend upon the section name. If
the section name is not recognized, the default will be for the section to be
loaded and writable. Note the n and w flags remove attributes from the section
, rather than adding them, so if they are used on their own it will be as if n
o flags had been specified at all.
If the optional argument to the .section directive is not quoted, it is taken
as a subsegment number (see Section 4.4 [Sub-Sections], page 25).

7.66 .section name (COFF 版本)

.section name[, "flags"]
.section name[, subsegment]

b bss 段 (未初始化的数据)
n 未装入内存的段
w 可写的段
d 数据段
r 只读段
x 代码段 （executable section）
s 共享段 （目标为PE格式有意义）

，则默认该段已装入内存并且可写。注意在使用n和w标志组合时，不是增加这组属性，而

ons], 25页)。

7.67 .section name (ELF 版本)
This is one of the ELF section stack manipulation directives. The others are .
subsection (see Section 7.79 [SubSection], page 56), .pushsection (see Section
7.61 [PushSection], page 50), .popsection (see Section 7.56 [PopSection], pag
e 50), and .previous (see Section 7.55 [Previous], page 49).
For ELF targets, the .section directive is used like this:
.section name [, "flags"[, @type]]
The optional flags argument is a quoted string which may contain any combinati
on of the following characters:
a section is allocatable
w section is writable
x section is executable
The optional type argument may contain one of the following constants:
@progbits section contains data
@nobits section does not contain data (i.e., section only occupies space)

If no flags are specified, the default flags depend upon the section name. If
the section name is not recognized, the default will be for the section to hav
e none of the above flags: it will not be allocated in memory, nor writable, n
or executable. The section will contain data.
For ELF targets, the assembler supports another type of .section directive for
compatibility with the Solaris assembler:
.section "name"[, flags...]
Note that the section name is quoted. There may be a sequence of comma separat
ed flags:
#alloc section is allocatable
#write section is writable
#execinstr section is executable
This directive replaces the current section and subsection. The replaced secti
on and subsection are pushed onto the section stack. See the contents of the g
as testsuite directory gas/testsuite/gas/elf for some examples of how this dir
ective and the other section stack directives work.

7.67 .section name (ELF 版本)

9 [SubSection], page 56), .pushsection (见Section 7.61 [PushSection], page 50)
, .popsection (见 Section 7.56 [PopSection], page 50), and .previous (见 Secti
on 7.55 [Previous], page 49).

.section name [, "flags"[, @type]]

a 可分配的段（allocatable）
w 可写段
x 代码段

@progbits 包含数据的段
@nobits 不包含数据的段(只占用空间的段)

.section "name"[, flags...]

#alloc 可分配的段（section is allocatable）
#write 可写的段
#execinstr 可执行的段

s的测试套件目录gas/testsuite/gas/elf，可以找到一些本命令和其他段堆栈操作命令的

7.68 .set symbol, expression
Set the value of symbol to expression. This changes symbol’s value and type t
o conform to expression. If symbol was flagged as external, it remains flagged
(see Section 5.5 [Symbol Attributes], page 30).
You may .set a symbol many times in the same assembly.
If you .set a global symbol, the value stored in the object file is the last v
alue stored into it.
The syntax for set on the HPPA is ‘symbol .set expression’.

7.68 .set symbol, expression

30页)。

7.69 .short expressions
.short is normally the same as ‘.word’. See Section 7.92 [.word], page 59.

In some configurations, however, .short and .word generate numbers of differen
t lengths; see Chapter 8 [Machine Dependencies], page 61.

7.69 .short expressions

pendencies], 61页.

7.70 .single flonums
This directive assembles zero or more flonums, separated by commas. It has the
same effect as .float. The exact kind of floating point numbers emitted depen
ds on how as is configured. See Chapter 8 [Machine Dependencies], page 61.

7.70 .single flonums

。生成浮点数的具体类型视as的配置而定。见第8章 [Machine Dependencies], 61页。

--------------------

# 回复：linux下汇编的Directive Operands 2004-09-08 3:25 PM n9871009
Re: 7 汇编器命令(下) [re: amtb]

sleb128/uleb128: 基于128位的低地址结尾带/无符号的数。您有什么好建议？
==========================下==================================
7.71 .size (COFF 版本)
This directive is generated by compilers to include auxiliary debugging inform
ation in the symbol table. It is only permitted inside .def/.endef pairs.
‘.size’ is only meaningful when generating COFF format output; when as is ge
nerating b.out, it accepts this directive but ignores it.

7.71 .size (COFF 版本)

7.72 .size name , expression (ELF 版本)
This directive is used to set the size associated with a symbol name. The size
in bytes is computed from expression which can make use of label arithmetic.
This directive is typically used to set the size of function symbols.

sion得到，参数expression中可以使用标签进行计算。本命令常用来设置函数符号的长度

7.73 .sleb128 expressions
sleb128 stands for “signed little endian base 128.” This is a compact, varia
ble length representation of numbers used by the DWARF symbolic debugging form
at. See Section 7.86 [Uleb128], page 58.

7.73 .sleb128 expressions
sleb128代表“signed little endian base 128”(低地址结尾的带符号128位基数)。这是

28], 58页。

7.74 .skip size , fill
This directive emits size bytes, each of value fill. Both size and fill are ab
solute expressions. If the comma and fill are omitted, fill is assumed to be z
ero. This is the same as ‘.space’.

7.74 .skip size , fill

。如果省略逗号和fill,则默认fill的值为0。这与’.space’相同。

7.75 .space size , fill
This directive emits size bytes, each of value fill. Both size and fill are ab
solute expressions. If the comma and fill are omitted, fill is assumed to be z
ero. This is the same as ‘.skip’.
Warning: .space has a completely different meaning for HPPA targets; use .bloc
k as a substitute. See HP9000 Series 800 Assembly Language Reference Manual (H
P 92432-90001) for the meaning of the .space directive. See Section 8.8.5 [HPP
A Assembler Directives], page 84, for a summary.
On the AMD 29K, this directive is ignored; it is accepted for compatibility wi
th other AMD 29K assemblers.
Warning: In most versions of the gnu assembler, the directive .space has the e
ffect of .block See Chapter 8 [Machine Dependencies], page 61.

7.75 .space size , fill

。如果省略了逗号和fill,则默认fill的值为0。这与’.skip’相同。

。在HP9000系列800汇编语言参考手册(HP 92432-90001)，可以找到.space命令的用法。参

e Dependencies], 61页。

7.76 .stabd, .stabn, .stabs
There are three directives that begin ‘.stab’. All emit symbols (see Chapter
5 [Symbols], page 29), for use by symbolic debuggers. The symbols are not ent
ered in the as hash table:they cannot be referenced elsewhere in the source fi
le. Up to five fields are required:
string This is the symbol’s name. It may contain any character except ‘\000’
, so is more general than ordinary symbol names. Some debuggers used to code a
rbitrarily complex structures into symbol names using this field.
type An absolute expression. The symbol’s type is set to the low 8 bits of th
is expression. Any bit pattern is permitted, but ld and debuggers choke on sil
ly bit patterns.
other An absolute expression. The symbol’s “other” attribute is set to the
low 8 bits of this expression.
desc An absolute expression. The symbol’s descriptor is set to the low 16 bit
s of this expression.
Value An absolute expression that becomes the symbol’s value.
If a warning is detected while reading a .stabd, .stabn, or .stabs statement,
the symbol has probably already been created; you get a half-formed symbol in
your object file. This is compatible with earlier assemblers!
.stabd type , other , desc
The “name” of the symbol generated is not even an empty string. It is a null
pointer, for compatibility. Older assemblers used a null pointer so they didn
’t waste space in object files with empty strings.
The symbol’s value is set to the location counter, relocatably. When your pro
gram is linked, the value of this symbol is the address of the location counte
r when the .stabd was assembled.
.stabn type , other , desc , value
The name of the symbol is set to the empty string "".
.stabs string , type , other , desc , value
All five fields are specified.

7.76 .stabd, .stabn, .stabs

string 这是符号的名字。它可以包含除‘\000’之外的任何字符，故此可用名比普通符号

type 这是一个纯粹的表达式。符号的类型属性由这个表达式的低8位设定。任何的位组合
（bit pattern）都可以，但连接器和调试器会被没有义的位组合所中断。
other 这是一个纯粹的表达式。由这个表达式的低8位设定此符号的“其它”属性。
desc 这是一个纯粹的表达式。由这个表达式的低16位设定此符号的描述符。
Value 这个纯粹的表达式将作为符号的值。

.stabd type , other , desc

.stabn type , other , desc , value

.stabs string , type , other , desc , value
5个属性域全部指定好。

7.77 .string "str"
Copy the characters in str to the object file. You may specify more than one s
tring to copy, separated by commas. Unless otherwise specified for a particula
r machine, the assembler marks the end of each string with a 0 byte. You can u
se any of the escape sequences described in Section 3.6.1.1 [Strings], page 19
.

7.77 .string "str"

7.78 .struct expression
Switch to the absolute section, and set the section offset to expression, whic
h must be an absolute expression. You might use this as follows:
.struct 0
field1:
.struct field1 + 4
field2:
.struct field2 + 4
field3:
This would define the symbol field1 to have the value 0, the symbol field2 to
have the value 4, and the symbol field3 to have the value 8. Assembly would be
left in the absolute section, and you would need to use a .section directive
of some sort to change to some other section before further assembly.

7.78 .struct expression

。您可以如下使用：
.struct 0
field1:
.struct field1 + 4
field2:
.struct field2 + 4
field3:

7.79 .subsection name
This is one of the ELF section stack manipulation directives. The others are .
section (see Section 7.66 [Section], page 52),.pushsection (see Section 7.61 [
PushSection], page 50), .popsection (see Section 7.56 [PopSection], page 50),
and .previous (see Section 7.55 [Previous], page 49).
This directive replaces the current subsection with name. The current section
is not changed. The replaced subsection is put onto the section stack in place
of the then current top of stack subsection.

7.79 .subsection name

.pushsection (参见 7.61 [PushSection],50页), .popsection (参见 7.56 [PopSectio
n], 50页), and .previous (参见7.55 [Previous], 49页)。

7.80 .symver
Use the .symver directive to bind symbols to specific version nodes within a s
ource file. This is only supported on ELF platforms, and is typically used whe
n assembling files to be linked into a shared library. There are cases where i
t may make sense to use this in objects to be bound into an application itself
so as to override a versioned symbol from a shared library.
For ELF targets, the .symver directive can be used like this:
.symver name, name2@nodename
If the symbol name is defined within the file being assembled, the .symver dir
ective effectively creates a symbol alias with the name name2@nodename, and in
fact the main reason that we just don’t try and create a regular alias is th
at the @ character isn’t permitted in symbol names. The name2 part of the nam
e is the actual name of the symbol by which it will be externally referenced.
The name name itself is merely a name of convenience that is used so that it i
s possible to have definitions for multiple versions of a function within a si
ngle source file, and so that the compiler can unambiguously know which versio
n of a function is being mentioned. The nodename portion of the alias should b
e the name of a node specified in the version script supplied to the linker wh
en building a shared library. If you are attempting to override a versioned sy
mbol from a shared library, then nodename should correspond to the nodename of
the symbol you are trying to override.
If the symbol name is not defined within the file being assembled, all referen
ces to name will be changed to name2@nodename. If no reference to name is made
, name2@nodename will be removed from the symbol table.
Another usage of the .symver directive is:
.symver name, name2@@nodename
In this case, the symbol name must exist and be defined within the file being
assembled. It is similar to name2@nodename. The difference is name2@@nodename
will also be used to resolve references to name2 by the linker.
The third usage of the .symver directive is:
.symver name, name2@@@nodename
When name is not defined within the file being assembled, it is treated as nam
e2@nodename. When name is defined within the file being assembled, the symbol
name, name, will be changed to name2@@nodename.

7.80 .symver

.symver name, name2@nodename

@’这个字符的。别名中name2才是符号的真正名字，外部访问是通过这个名字进行的。符

dename的访问。如果根本没有对name的访问，将会把name2@nodename从符号表中删除。

.symver命令的另一种用法：
.symver name, name2@@nodename

.symver命令的第3种用法：
.symver name, name2@@@nodename

me。如果name是当前正在汇编的文件中定义的，符号的名字name，会被转换为name2@@nod
ename。

7.81 .tag structname
This directive is generated by compilers to include auxiliary debugging inform
ation in the symbol table. It is only permitted inside .def/.endef pairs. Tags
are used to link structure definitions in the symbol table with instances of
those structures.
‘.tag’ is only used when generating COFF format output; when as is generatin
g b.out, it accepts this directive but ignores it.

7.81 .tag structname

f语句对内使用。标饰（tags）常用来连接符号表中的结构定义和该结构实例。
‘.tag’只能在生成COFF格式的输出文件时使用。当as生成b.out格式的输出文件时，接受

7.82 .text subsection
Tells as to assemble the following statements onto the end of the text subsect
ion numbered subsection, which is an absolute expression. If subsection is omi
tted, subsection number zero is used.

7.82 .text subsection

Use heading as the title (second line, immediately after the source file name
and page number) when generating assembly listings.
This directive affects subsequent pages, as well as the current page if it app
ears within ten lines of the top of a page.

7.84 .type int (COFF version)
This directive, permitted only within .def/.endef pairs, records the integer i
nt as the type attribute of a symbol table entry.
‘.type’ is associated only with COFF format output; when as is configured fo
r b.out output, it accepts this directive but ignores it.

7.84 .type int (COFF 版本)

‘.type’只和COFF格式的输出有关，当as配置生成b.out输出格式时，as接受本命令但忽

7.85 .type name , type description (ELF version)
This directive is used to set the type of symbol name to be either a function
symbol or an object symbol. There are five different syntaxes supported for th
e type description field, in order to provide compatibility with various other
assemblers. The syntaxes supported are:

.type <name>,#function
.type <name>,#object

.type <name>,@function
.type <name>,@object

.type <name>,%function
.type <name>,%object

.type <name>,"function"
.type <name>,"object"

.type <name> STT_FUNCTION
.type <name> STT_OBJECT

7.85 .type name , type description (ELF 版本)

escription部分允许使用5种不同的语法，以兼容众多的汇编器。这些语法是：

.type <name>,#function
.type <name>,#object

.type <name>,@function
.type <name>,@object

.type <name>,%function
.type <name>,%object

.type <name>,"function"
.type <name>,"object"

.type <name> STT_FUNCTION
.type <name> STT_OBJECT

7.86 .uleb128 expressions
uleb128 stands for “unsigned little endian base 128.” This is a compact, var
iable length representation of numbers used by the DWARF symbolic debugging fo
rmat. See Section 7.73 [Sleb128], page 54.

7.86 .uleb128 expressions
uleb128代表“unsigned little endian base 128”(低地址结尾的无符号128位基数)。这

b128], 54页。

This directive, permitted only within .def/.endef pairs, records the address a
ddr as the value attribute of a symbol table entry.
‘.val’ is used only for COFF output; when as is configured for b.out, it acc
epts this directive but ignores it.

‘.val’命令只能在COFF输出时使用；当as被配置成生成b.out输出时，接受本命令但忽略

7.88 .version "string"
This directive creates a .note section and places into it an ELF formatted not
e of type NT VERSION. The note’s name is set to string.

7.88 .version "string"

7.89 .vtable_entry table, offset
This directive finds or creates a symbol table and creates a VTABLE_ENTRY relo
cation for it with an addend of offset.

7.89 .vtable_entry table, offset

_ENTRY重定位。

7.90 .vtable_inherit child, parent
This directive finds the symbol child and finds or creates the symbol parent a
nd then creates a VTABLE_INHERIT relocation for the parent whose addend is the
value of the child symbol. As a special case the parent name of 0 is treated
as refering the *ABS* section.

7.90 .vtable_inherit child, parent

T重定位，parent的偏移量增量为符号child的值。一个特例，如果parent的名字为0，则将

7.91 .weak names
This directive sets the weak attribute on the comma separated list of symbol n
ames. If the symbols do not already exist, they will be created.

7.91 .weak names

7.92 .word expressions
This directive expects zero or more expressions, of any section, separated by
commas.
The size of the number emitted, and its byte order, depend on what target comp
uter the assembly is for.
Warning: Special Treatment to support Compilers
Machines with a 32-bit address space, but that do less than 32-bit addressing,
require the following special treatment. If the machine of interest to you do
es 32-bit addressing (or doesn’t require it; see Chapter 8 [Machine Dependenc
ies], page 61), you can ignore this issue.
In order to assemble compiler output into something that works, as occasionall
y does strange things to ‘.word’ directives. Directives of the form ‘.word
sym1-sym2’ are often emitted by compilers as part of jump tables. Therefore,
when as assembles a directive of the form ‘.word sym1-sym2’, and the differe
nce between sym1 and sym2 does not fit in 16 bits, as creates a secondary jump
table, immediately before the next label. This secondary jump table is preced
ed by a short-jump to the first byte after the secondary table. This short-jum
p prevents the flow of control from accidentally falling into the new table. I
nside the table is a long-jump to sym2. The original ‘.word’ contains sym1 m
If there were several occurrences of ‘.word sym1-sym2’ before the secondary
jump table, all of them are adjusted. If there was a ‘.word sym3-sym4’, that
also did not fit in sixteen bits, a long-jump to sym4 is included in the seco
ndary jump table, and the .word directives are adjusted to contain sym3 minus
the address of the long-jump to sym4; and so on, for as many entries in the or
iginal jump table as necessary.

7.92 .word expressions

7.93 Deprecated Directives
One day these directives won’t work. They are included for compatibility with
older assemblers.
.abort
.line

7.93 不赞成使用的命令

.abort
.line

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