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GDB使用简介

Ted posted @ 2008年9月05日 04:25 in gdb with tags gdb , 3604 阅读

1、GDB 是什么?
GDB(GNU symbolic debugger)简单地说就是一个调试工具。它是一个受通用公共许可证即GPL保护的自由软件。

2、GDB特性

象所有的调试器一样,GDB可以让你调试一个程序,包括让程序在你希望的地方停下,此时你可以查看变量,寄存器,内存及堆栈。更进一步你可以修改变量 及内存值。GDB是一个功能很强大的调试器,它可以调试多种语言。在此我们仅涉及C和C++的调试,而不包括其它语言。还有一点要说明的是,GDB是一个 调试器,而不象VC一样是一个集成环境。你可以使用一些前端工具如XXGDB,DDD等。他们都有图形化界面,因此使用更方便,但它们仅是GDB的一层外 壳。因此,你仍应熟悉GDB命令。事实上,当你使用这些图形化界面时间较长时,你才会发现熟悉GDB命令的重要性。下面我们将结合简单的例子,来介绍 GDB的一些重要的常用命令。在你调试你的程序之前,当你编译你的源程序时,不要忘了-g选项或其它相应的选项,才能将调试信息加到你要调试的程序中。例 如:gcc -g -o hello hello.c 。

3、GDB常用命令简介

GDB的命令很多,本文不会全部介绍,仅会介绍一些最常用的。在介绍之前,先介绍GDB中的一个非常有用的功能:补齐功能。它就如同Linux下 SHELL中的命令补齐一样。当你输入一个命令的前几个字符,然后输入TAB键,如果没有其它命令的前几个字符与此相同,SHELL将补齐此命令。如果有 其它命令的前几个字符与此相同,你会听到一声警告声,再输入TAB键,SHELL将所有前几个字符与此相同的命令全部列出。而GDB中的补齐功能不仅能补 齐GDB命令,而且能补齐参数。
本文将先介绍常用的命令,然后结合一个具体的例子来演示如何实际使用这些命令。下面的所有命令除了第一条启动GDB命令是在SHELL下输入的,其余 都是GDB内的命令。大部分GDB内的命令都可以仅输入前几个字符,只要不与其它指令冲突。如quit可以简写为q,因为以q打头的命令只有quit。 List可以简写为l,等等

3.1 启动GDB
你可以输入GDB来启动GDB程序。GDB程序有许多参数,在此没有必要详细介绍,但一个最为常用的还是要介绍的:如果你已经编译好一个程序,我们假设文件名为hello,你想用GDB调试它,可以输入gdb hello来启动GDB并载入你的程序。如果你仅仅启动了GDB,你必须在启动后,在GDB中再载入你的程序。

3.2 载入程序 === file
在GDB内,载入程序很简单,使用file命令。如file hello。当然,程序的路径名要正确。

退出GDB === quit
在GDB的命令方式下,输入quit,你就可以退出GDB。你也可以输入'C-d'来退出GDB。

3.3 运行程序 === run
当你在GDB中已将要调试的程序载入后,你可以用run命令来执行。如果你的程序需要参数,你可以在run指令后接着输入参数,就象你在SHELL下执行一个需要参数的命令一样。

3.4 查看程序信息 === info
info指令用来查看程序的信息,当你用help info查看帮助的话,info指令的参数足足占了两个屏幕,它的参数非常多,但大部分不常用。我用info指令最多的是用它来查看断点信息。

3.4.1 查看断点信息
info br
br是断点break的缩写,记得GDB的补齐功能吧。用这条指令,你可以得到你所设置的所有断点的详细信息。包括断点号,类型,状态,内存地址,断点在源程序中的位置等。

3.4.2 查看当前源程序
info source

3.4.3 查看堆栈信息
info stack
用这条指令你可以看清楚程序的调用层次关系。
3.4.4 查看当前的参数
info args

3.5 列出源一段源程序 === list

3.5.1 列出某个函数
list FUNCTION

3.5.2 以当前源文件的某行为中间显示一段源程序
list LINENUM

3.5.3 接着前一次继续显示
list

3.5.4 显示前一次之前的源程序
list -

3.5.5 显示另一个文件的一段程序
list FILENAME:FUNCTION 或 list FILENAME:LINENUM

3.6 设置断点 === break
现在我们将要介绍的也许是最常用和最重要的命令:设置断点。无论何时,只要你的程序已被载入,并且当前没有正在运行,你就能设置,修改,删除断点。设置断点的命令是break。有许多种设置断点的方法。如下:

3.6.1 在函数入口设置断点
break FUNCTION

3.6.2 在当前源文件的某一行上设置断点
break LINENUM

3.6.3 在另一个源文件的某一行上设置断点
break FILENAME:LINENUM

3.6.4 在某个地址上设置断点,当你调试的程序没有源程序是,这很有用
break *ADDRESS
除此之外,设置一个断点,让它只有在某些特定的条件成立时程序才会停下,我们可以称其为条件断点。这个功能很有用,尤其是当你要在一个程序会很多次执 行到的地方设置断点时。如果没有这个功能,你必须有极大的耐心,加上大量的时间,一次一次让程序断下,检查一些值,接着再让程序继续执行。事实上,大部分 的断下并不是我们所希望的,我们只希望在某些条件下让程序断下。这时,条件断点就可以大大提高你的效率,节省你的时间。条件断点的命令如下,在后面的例子 中会有示例。

3.6.5 条件断点
break ...if COND
COND是一个布尔条件表达式,语法与C语言中的一样。条件断点与一般的断点不同之处是每当程序执行到断点处,都要计算条件表达式,如果为真,程序才会断下,否则程序会一直执行下去。

3.7 其它断点操作
GDB给每个断点赋上一个整数数字,这个数字在操作断点时起到重要作用,它实际上就代表相应的断点。GDB中的断点有四种状态:
有效(Enabled)
禁止(Disabled)
一次有效(Enabled once)
有效后删除(Enabled for deletion)
在上面的四个状态有效和禁止都很好理解,禁止就是让断点暂时失效。一次有效就是当程序在此断点断下后,断点状态自动变为禁止状态。有效后删除就是当程序在此断点断下后,断点被删除。实际上,后两种状态一般不会碰到。
当你设置一个断点后,它的确省状态是有效。你可以用enable和disable指令来设置断点的状态为有效或禁止。例如,如果你想禁止2号断点,可以用下面的指令:
disable 2
相应的,如果想删除2号断点,可以有下面的指令:
delete 2

3.8 设置监视点 === watch
当你调试一个很大的程序,并且在跟踪一个关键的变量时,发现这个变量不知在哪儿被改动过,如何才能找到改动它的地方。这时你可以使用watch命令。简单地说,监视点可以让你监视某个表达式或变量,当它被读或被写时让程序断下。watch命令的用法如下:
watch EXPRESSION
watch指令是监视被写的,当你想监视某个表达式或变量被读的话,需要使用rwatch指令,具体用法是一样的。要注意的是,监视点有硬件和软件两 种方式,如果可能Linux尽可能用硬件方式,因为硬件方式在速度上要大大快于软件方式。软件方式由于要在每次执行一条指令后都要检查所要监视的值是否被 改变,因此它的执行速度会大大降低。同时它也无法设置成被读时让程序断下,因为读操作不会改变值,所以GDB无法检测到读操作。幸运的是,目前的PC机基 本都支持硬件方式。如果你想确认一下你的机器是否支持硬件,你可以在调试程序时用watch设置一个监视点,如果GDB向你显示:
Hardware watchpoint NUM: EXPR
那么你可以放心了,你的机器支持硬件方式。

3.9 检查数据
最常用的检查数据的方法是使用print命令。
print exp
print指令打印exp表达式的值。却省情况下,表达式的值的打印格式依赖于它的数据类型。但你可以用一个参数/F来选择输出的打印格式。F是一个 代表某种格式的字母,详细可参考输出格式一节。表达式可以是常量,变量,函数调用,条件表达式等。但不能打印宏定义的值。表达式exp中的变量必须是全局 变量或当前堆栈区可见的变量。否则GDB会显示象下面的一条信息:
No symbol "varible" in current context

3.10 修改变量值
在调试程序时,你可能想改变一个变量的值,看看在这种情况下会发生什么。用set指令可以修改变量的值:
set varible=value
例如你想将一个变量tmp的值赋为10,
set tmp=10

3.11 检查内存值
检查内存值的指令是x,x是examine的意思。用法如下:
x /NFU ADDR
其中N代表重复数,F代表输出格式(见2.13),U代表每个数据单位的大小。U可以去如下值:
b :字节(byte)
h :双字节数值
w :四字节数值
g :八字节数值
因此,上面的指令可以这样解释:从ADDR地址开始,以F格式显示N个U数值。例如:
x/4ub 0x4000
会以无符号十进制整数格式(u)显示四个字节(b),0x4000,0x4001,0x4002,0x4003。

3.12 输出格式
缺省情况下,输出格式依赖于它的数据类型。但你可以改变输出格式。当你使用print命令时,可以用一个参数/F来选择输出的打印格式。F可以是以下的一些值:
'x' 16进制整数格式
'd' 有符号十进制整数格式
'u' 无符号十进制整数格式
'f' 浮点数格式

3.13 单步执行指令
单步执行指令有两个step和next。Step可以让你跟踪进入一个函数,而next指令则不会进入函数。

3.14 继续执行指令
当程序被断下后,你查看了所需的信息后,你会希望程序执行下去,输入 continue, 程序会继续执行下去。

3.15 帮助指令help
在GDB中,如果想知道一条指令的用法,最方便的方法是使用help。使用方法很简单,在help后跟上指令名。例如,想知道list指令用法,输入
help list

4.一个简单的例子

上面仅是GDB常用指令的简单介绍。本节将结合一个简单的例子,向大家演示这些常用指令的具体应用。这是一个冒泡排序算法的程序,这个例子的目的仅仅是演示,并不是实际调试。将下面的源程序存为bubble.c文件,并编译好。
#include <stdio.h>

#define MAX_RECORD_NUMBER 10

int record[MAX_RECORD_NUMBER] =
{12,76,48,62,94,17,37,52,69,32};

swap(int * x , int * y )
{
int temp;
temp = *x;
*x = *y;
*y = temp;
}

int main()
{
int i,j;
for( i = 0 ; i < MAX_RECORD_NUMBER - 1; i++ )
{
for( j = MAX_RECORD_NUMBER - 1; j > i; j--)
if( record[j] < record[j-1] )
swap(&record[j],&record[j-1]);
}

for( i = 0; i < MAX_RECORD_NUMBER -1; i++)
printf("%d ",record[i]);

printf("\n");
return 1;
}
记得在编译时用-g开关。如:gcc -g -o bubble bubble.c。你能在当前子目录下得到一个编译好的文件bubble。我们下面将以这个程序为例子向大家演示上面的指令在实际中的应用。
首先启动GDB,可以在启动的同时载入文件bubble,如:gdb bubble。也可以分两步进行,先启动GDB,执行gdb,进入GDB后,再执行file bubble。
这时可以用list指令列出源程序,list的使用比较简单,但其实在GDB中最不方便的就是看源程序,主要原因是因为GDB仅是一个文本方式的调试器,无法让你用鼠标和光标键来翻阅源程序,在这方面ddd等窗口程序有巨大的优势。
我们先来查看一下当前源程序的信息,如下:
(gdb) info source
Current source file is bubble.c
Compilation directory is /root/sample/
Located in /root/sample/bubble.c
Contains 32 lines.
Source language is c.
Compiled with stabs debugging format.
我们可以知道程序名,目录,文件大小,语言等信息。
下面我们来设置断点,我们想在函数swap出设置一个断点:
(gdb) br swap
Breakpoint 1 at 0x80483d6: file bubble.c, line 11.
br是break的简写。上面的一行是GDB告诉我们这个断点的信息,我们可以知道这个断点的断点号是1,地址是0x80483d6,它在文件bubble.c的11行。
我们再在一个行号上设一个断点,
(gdb) br 23
Breakpoint 2 at 0x804844a: file bubble.c, line 23.
我们已经设了两个断点,许多时候你会想查看一下断点的信息和状态,因此你会用到你最常使用的info指令,info br。
(gdb) info br
Num Type Disp Enb Address What
1 breakpoint keep y 0x080483d6 in swap at bubble.c:11
2 breakpoint keep y 0x0804844a in main at bubble.c:23
我用这条指令的大多数原因是想查看一下某个断点的断点号,就是第一列的数值。有时也会看一下断点的状态是enable还是disable。以上的两个断点都是y,也就是都处于enable状态。type列显示breakpoint,是因为info br指令同时也会显示watch的信息,因此用type来识别是断点breakpoint还是检查点watch。
如果你知道断点号,想删除断点很简单,例如想删除断点2,执行del 2就行了。
在程序中,断点2本来设在循环中,那样程序会频烦断下,这也许不是我们希望的。也许我们仅想在某个条件下让它断下,如想当j=5时。
(gdb) br 23 if j==5
Breakpoint 3 at 0x804844a: file bubble.c, line 23.
(gdb) info br
Num Type Disp Enb Address What
1 breakpoint keep y 0x080483d6 in swap at bubble.c:11
3 breakpoint keep y 0x0804844a in main at bubble.c:23
stop only if j == 5
注意现在的断点信息,虽然断点2被删除了,但新设的断点号没有使用2号,而是使用了3号。新设的断点是个条件断点,这从"stop only if j == 5"可以清楚的看出。
现在执行程序,输入run指令。
(gdb) run
Starting program: /root/sample/bubble

Breakpoint 1, swap (x=0x80495a4, y=0x80495a0) at bubble.c:11
11 temp = *x;
程序已经在断点1停了下来。当断点停下时,我们经常需要查看变量值。如查看x值。
(gdb) p x
$1 = (int *) 0x80495a4
GDB告诉我们x是一个指向整数的指针,指针值是0x80495a4。如果想查看指针指向的值。执行:
(gdb) p *x
$2 = 32
(gdb) p *y
$3 = 69
单步执行
(gdb) n
12 *x = *y;
查看变量temp值
(gdb) p temp
$4 = 32
(gdb) n
13 *y = temp;
(gdb) p *x
$5 = 69
现在删除断点1
(gdb) del 1
继续执行
(gdb) cont
Continuing.

Breakpoint 3, main () at bubble.c:23
23 swap(&record[j],&record[j-1]);
程序在断点3停下,记得断点3是个条件断点。要验证很简单,查看一下变量j的值是不是5。
(gdb) p j
$6 = 5
我们可以查看一下全局变量record的值,
(gdb) p record
$7 = {12, 76, 48, 62, 94, 17, 32, 37, 52, 69}
也可以查看一下变量record的地址,
(gdb) p &record
$8 = (int (*)[10]) 0x8049580
知道地址时,也可以x指令查看内存值。
(gdb) x/4uw 0x8049580
0x8049580 <record>: 12 76 48 62
上面的指令查看4个4字节数,以整数方式显示。可以看到这与reocrd值是相附的。
(gdb) x/4bb record
0x8049580 <record>: 12 0 0 0
显示4个单字节数,以字节当时显示。上面的4个字节值正好是record数组第一个整数值,因为整数是4字节,而且intel机器的数值是低字节在前。
改变变量值也很简单,如果想将reocrd数组第一个值该为1,
(gdb) set record[0]=1
看一下值是否改变了。
(gdb) p record
$10 = {1, 76, 48, 62, 94, 17, 32, 37, 52, 69}
第一个值以改成了1。

以上简单地介绍了一些常用的GDB指令,由于篇幅所限,我们无法涉及GDB所有指令及GDB其它许多功能,读者应当自己在实践中不断地学习。Linux系统中会有详细的GDB的资料,你可以用info gdb来查阅这些资料。

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