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gdb使用指南(2)

Ted posted @ 2008年9月05日 04:29 in gdb with tags gdb , 2964 阅读

程序环境
==========================
   “环境”包括了一系列的环境变量和它们的值。环境变量一般记录了一些常用的信息,
比如你的用户名,主目录,你的终端型号和你的运行程序的搜索路径。一般你可以在shell
下设置环境变量,然后这些变量被所有你所运行的程序所共享。在调试中,可以设置恰当
的环境变量而不用退出gdb.

`path DIRECTORY'
     在'PATH'环境变量前加入新的内容('PATH'提供了搜索执行文件的路径)。对于gdb和
你的程序来说你也许要设置一些专门的路径。使用':'或空格来分隔。如果DIRECTORY已经
在路径中了,这个操作将会把它移到前面。
     你可以使用串'$cmd'来代表当前路径,如果你用'.'的话,它代表你使用'path'命令
时的路径,gdb将在把DIRECTORY加入搜索路径前用'.'代替当前路径

`show paths'
     显示当前路径变量的设置情况。

`show environment [VARNAME]'
     显示某个环境变量的值。如果你不指明变量名,则gdb会显示所有的变量名和它们的
内容。environment可以被缩写成'env'

`set environment VARNAME [=] VALUE'
     设置某个环境变量的值。不过只对你所调试的程序有效。对gdb本身是不起作用的。
值可以是任何串。如果未指定值,则该变量值将被设为NULL.
看一个例子:
          set env USER = foo
     告诉一个linux程序,当它下一次运行是用户名将是'foo'

`unset environment VARNAME'
     删除某环境变量。

   注意:gdb使用'shell'环境变量所指定的shell来运行你的程序。

工作路径
================================
   当你每次用'run'命令来运行你的程序时,你的程序将继承gdb的
当前工作目录。而gdb的工作目录是从它的父进程继承而来的(一般是
shell)。但你可以自己使用'cd'命令指定工作目录。
   gdb的工作目录就是它去寻找某些文件或信息的途径。
`cd DIRECTORY'
     把gdb的工作目录设为DIRECTORY
`pwd'
     打印输出当前目录。
你程序的输入/输出
===============================
   缺省时,你的程序的输入/输出和gdb的输入/输出使用同一个终端。
gdb在它自己和你的程序之间切换来和你交互,但这会引起混乱。
`info terminal'
     显示你当前所使用的终端的类型信息。
     你可以把你程序的输入/输出重定向。
例如:
     run > outfile
运行你的程序并把你程序的标准输出写入文件outfile中。
   另一个为你程序指定输入/输出的方法是使用'tty'命令,这个命令
接受一个文件名作为参量把这个文件作为以后使用'run'命令的缺省命
令文件。它还重新为子进程设置控制终端。
例如:
     tty /dev/ttyb
指定以后用'run'命令启动的进程使用终端'/dev/ttyb'作为程序的输入
/输出,而且把这个终端设为你进程的控制终端。
   一个清楚的使用'run'命令的重定向将重新设置'tty'所设置的内容
,但不影响控制终端。   当你使用'tty'命令或在'run'命令中对输入
/输出进行重定向时,只有你当前调试的程序的输入/输出被改变了,
并不会影响到别的程序。
调试一个已经运行的程序:
====================================

`attach PROCESS-ID'
     这个命令把一个已经运行的进程(在gdb外启动)连接入gdb,以便
调试。PROCESS-ID是进程号。(UNIX中使用'ps'或'jobs -l'来查看进程)
     'attach'一般不重复。(当你打了一个以上的回车时)
   当然要使用'attach'命令的话,你的操作系统环境必须支持进程。
另外你还要有向此进程发信号的权力。
   当使用'attach'命令时,你应该先使用'file'命令来指定进程所
联系的程序源代码和符号表。   当gdb接到'attach'命令后第一件
事就是停止进程的运行,你可以使用所有gdb的命令来调试一个“连接”
的进程,就象你用'run'命令在gdb中启动它一样。如果你要进程继续运
行,使用'continue'或'c'命令就行了。
`detach'
   当你结束调试后可以使用此命令来断开进程和gdb的连接。(解除gdb
对它的控制)在这个命令执行后进程将继续执行。
   如果你在用'attach'连接一个进程后退出了gdb,或使用'run'命令执
行了另一个进程,这个被'attach'的进程将被kill掉。但缺省时,gdb会
要求你确认你是否要退出或执行一个新的进程。

结束子进程
=========================
`kill'
     Kill命令结束你程序在gdb下开的子进程
     这个命令当你想要调试(检查)一个core dump文件时更有用。gdb在调试过程中
会忽略所有的core dump。
   在一些操作系统上,一个程序当你在上面加了断点以后就不能离开gdb独立运行。
你可以用kill命令来解决这个问题。
   'kill'命令当你想重新编译和连接你的程序时也很有用。因为有些系统不允许修改
正在执行的可执行程序。这样当你再一次使用'run'命令时gdb会知道你的程序已经被改
变了,那么gdb会重新load新的符号。(而且尽量保持你当前的断点设置。
附加的进程信息
==============================
   一些操作系统提供了一个设备目录叫做'/proc'的,供检查进程映象。如果gdb被在这
样的操作系统下运行,你可以使用命令'info proc'来查询进程的信息。('info proc'命
令只在支持'procfs'的SVR4系统上有用。
`info proc'
     显示进程的概要信息。
`info proc mappings'
     报告你进程所能访问的地址范围。
`info proc times'
     你进程和子进程的开始时间,用户时间(user CPU time),和系统CPU时间。
`info proc id'
     报告有关进程id的信息。
`info proc status'
     报告你进程的一般状态信息。如果进程停止了。这个报告还包括停止的原因和收到的
信号。
`info proc all'
     显示上面这些命令返回的所有信息。
对多线程程序的调试
========================================
   一些操作系统中,一个单独的程序可以有一个以上的线程在运行。线程和进程精确的定?
?

?
?
有自己的寄存器,运行时堆栈或许还会有私有内存。
   gdb提供了以下供调试多线程的进程的功能:
   * 自动通告新线程。
   * 'thread THREADNO',一个用来在线程之间切换的命令。
   * 'info threads',一个用来查询现存线程的命令。
   * 'thread apply [THREADNO] [ALL] ARGS',一个用来向线程提供命令的命令。
   * 线程有关的断点设置。
   注意:这些特性不是在所有gdb版本都能使用,归根结底要看操作系统是否支持。
   如果你的gdb不支持这些命令,会显示出错信息:
          (gdb) info threads
          (gdb) thread 1
          Thread ID 1 not known.  Use the "info threads" command to
          see the IDs of currently known threads.
   gdb的线程级调试功能允许你观察你程序运行中所有的线程,但无论什么时候
gdb控制,总有一个“当前”线程。调试命令对“当前”进程起作用。
   一旦gdb发现了你程序中的一个新的线程,它会自动显示有关此线程的系统信
息。比如:
     [New process 35 thread 27]
不过格式和操作系统有关。
   为了调试的目的,gdb自己设置线程号。
`info threads'
     显示进程中所有的线程的概要信息。gdb按顺序显示:
       1.线程号(gdb设置)
       2.目标系统的线程标识。
       3.此线程的当前堆栈。
       一前面打'*'的线程表示是当前线程。
     例如:
     (gdb) info threads
       3 process 35 thread 27  0x34e5 in sigpause ()
       2 process 35 thread 23  0x34e5 in sigpause ()
     * 1 process 35 thread 13  main (argc=1, argv=0x7ffffff8)
         at threadtest.c:68

`thread THREADNO'
     把线程号为THREADNO的线程设为当前线程。命令行参数THREADNO是gdb内定的
线程号。你可以用'info threads'命令来查看gdb内设置的线程号。gdb显示该线程
的系统定义的标识号和线程对应的堆栈。比如:

          (gdb) thread 2
          [Switching to process 35 thread 23]
          0x34e5 in sigpause ()
     "Switching后的内容取决于你的操作系统对线程标识的定义。

`thread apply [THREADNO] [ALL]  ARGS'
     此命令让你对一个以上的线程发出相同的命令"ARGS",[THREADNO]的含义同上。
如果你要向你进程中的所有的线程发出命令使用[ALL]选项。
   无论gdb何时中断了你的程序(因为一个断点或是一个信号),它自动选择信号或
断点发生的线程为当前线程。gdb将用一个格式为'[Switching to SYSTAG]'的消息
来向你报告。
   *参见:运行和停止多线程程序。
   *参见:设置观察点

调试多进程的程序
==========================================
   gdb对调试使用'fork'系统调用产生新进程的程序没有很多支持。当一个程序开始
一个新进程时,gdb将继续对父进程进行调试,子进程将不受影响的运行。如果你在子
进程可能会执行到的地方设了断点,那么子进程将收到'SIGTRAP'信号,如果子进程没
有对这个信号进行处理的话那么缺省的处理就是使子进程终止。
   然而,如果你要一定要调试子进程的话,这儿有一个不是很麻烦的折衷的办法。在
子进程被运行起来的开头几句语句前加上一个'sleep'命令。这在调试过程中并不会引
起程序中很大的麻烦(不过你要自己注意例外的情况幺:-))。然后再使用'ps'命令列出
新开的子进程号,最后使用'attach'命令。这样就没有问题了。
  关于这一段,本人觉得实际使用上并不全是这样。我在调试程中就试过,好象不一定
能起作用,要看gdb的版本和你所使用的操作系统了。

停止和继续
***********************
   调试器的基本功能就是让你能够在程序运行时在终止之前在某些条件下停止下来,然
后再继续运行,这样的话你就可以检查当你的程序出错时你的程序究竟做了些什么。
   在gdb内部,你的程序会由于各种原因而暂时停止,比如一个信号,一个断点,或是
由于你用了'step'命令。在程序停止的时候你就可以检查和改变变量的值,设置或去掉
断点,然后继续你程序的运行。一般当程序停下来时gdb都会显示一些有关程序状态的信
息。比如象程序停止的原因,堆栈等等。如果你要了解更详细的信息,你可以使用'info
program'命令。另外,在任何时候你输入这条命令,gdb都会显示当前程序运行的状态信
息。

`info program'
     显示有关你程序状态的信息:你的程序是在运行还是停止,是什么进程,为什么停
止。

断点,观察点和异常
========================================
   断点的作用是当你程序运行到断点时,无论它在做什么都会被停止下来。对于每个断点
你都可以设置一些更高级的信息以决定断点在什么时候起作用。你可以使用'break’命令
来在你的程序中设置断点,在前面的例子中我们已经提到过一些这个命令的使用方法了。
你可以在行上,函数上,甚至在确切的地址上设置断点。在含有异常处理的语言(比如象
c++)中,你还可以在异常发生的地方设置断点。
   在SunOS 4.x,SVR4和Alpha OSF/1的设置中,你还可以在共享库中设置断点。
   观察点是一种特殊的断点。它们在你程序中某个表达式的值发生变化时起作用。你必
须使用另外一些命令来设置观察点。除了这个特性以外,你可以象对普通断点一样对观察
点进行操作--使用和普通断点操作一样的命令来对观察点使能,使不能,删除。
   你可以安排当你程序被中断时显示的程序变量。
   当你在程序中设置断点或观察点时gdb为每个断点或观察点赋一个数值.在许多对断点
操作的命令中都要使用这个数值。

设置断点
=============
   使用'break'或简写成'b'来设置断点。gdb使用环境变量$bpnum来记录你最新设置的
断点。
   你有不少方法来设置断点。
 

`break FUNCTION'
     此命令用来在某个函数上设置断点。当你使用允许函数重载的语言比如C++时,有可
能同时在几个重载的函数上设置了断点。

`break +OFFSET'
`break -OFFSET'
     在当前程序运行到的前几行或后几行设置断点。OFFSET为行号。

`break LINENUM'
     在行号为LINENUM的行上设置断点。程序在运行到此行之前停止。

`break FILENAME:LINENUM'
     在文件名为FILENAME的原文件的第LINENUM行设置断点。

`break FILENAME:FUNCTION'
     在文件名为FILENAME的原文件的名为FUNCTION的函数上设置断点。
当你的多个文件中可能含有相同的函数名时必须给出文件名。

`break *ADDRESS'
     在地址ADDRESS上设置断点,这个命令允许你在没有调试信息的程
序中设置断点。
`break'
     当'break'命令不包含任何参数时,'break'命令在当前执行到的程
序运行栈中的下一条指令上设置一个断点。除了栈底以外,这个命令使
程序在一旦从当前函数返回时停止。相似的命令是'finish',但'finish'
并不设置断点。这一点在循环语句中很有用。
     gdb在恢复执行时,至少执行一条指令。

`break ... if COND'
     这个命令设置一个条件断点,条件由COND指定;在gdb每次执行到此
断点时COND都被计算当COND的值为非零时,程序在断点处停止。这意味着
COND的值为真时程序停止。...可以为下面所说的一些参量。

`tbreak ARGS'
     设置断点为只有效一次。ARGS的使用同'break'中的参量的使用。

`hbreak ARGS'
     设置一个由硬件支持的断点。ARGS同'break'命令,设置方法也和
'break'相同。但这种断点需要由硬件支持,所以不是所有的系统上这个
命令都有效。这个命令的主要目的是用于对EPROM/ROM程序的调试。因为
这条命令可以在不改变代码的情况下设置断点。这可以同SPARCLite DSU
一起使用。当程序访问某些变量和代码时,DSU将设置“陷井”。注意:
你只能一次使用一个断点,在新设置断点时,先删除原断点。

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